Month: March 2019

Criminal LawEducationExpert Witness

Celebrity, Ivy League, College Cheating Scandal: Education Expert Witness Insights

When the news hands you a juicy story about wealthy celebrities, elite universities, college admissions, cheating, corruption, federal crimes, racketeering and conspiracy, it is really difficult to choose a title for the article.

If you are at all like me, when the news broke yesterday about wealthy celebrities bribing college officials to help get their children into elite schools, you were probably immediately angry with your parents for not doing the same! I kid. Sometimes, you just have to make light of these situations.

If you’re not up-to-date on “Operation Varsity Blues,” there is some good coverage here.

More likely, you were angry to read that one of the alleged criminals paid to have someone take an SAT for their daughter, scoring approximately 400 points higher than the child could score on their own merit.

Then you probably scrolled through the indictment to see another wealthy family is accused of bribing a crew coach (spending approximately $500,000 in bribes), to help their child be admitted as an athlete, when the child had no history of rowing competitively.

Those of us who have had to work hard to achieve our educational credentials, as a result of learning disabilities, were further angered by parents helping their children to fake disabilities to get more time on a test. This author struggled with school his whole life because of undiagnosed learning disabilities that were discovered only as an adult. I survived. I worked harder to excel. Needless to say, trying to cheat the system and fake a disability really bothered me because accommodations are meant to level the playing field, not give someone unnecessary an edge.

Most of us are aware students receive special benefits if parents or family members have previously gone to the university. We also know that the donating of a building or program often provides family members with special influence. We know this and we sort of accept it as part of society. Successful people work to help their families achieve success. Most of us have accepted this idea. However, when those efforts break the law, corrupt the education system, and displace truly qualified students, we cannot accept it and we should not accept it.

As a result of yesterday’s news, I reached out to one of our members’ to get some early insights on this matter. It is important to remember this story is still developing and what we learned yesterday, may change tomorrow or the next day.

Education Management Expert Witness Dr. Edward Dragan:

Dr. Edward Dragan, has over 40 years experience in education. He has been a special-education teacher, served as a public school principal and a superintendent, founded an alternative school with a group of disenchanted parents and students, and much more. After consulting with an attorney and testifying in court as an expert witness, Dr. Dragan decided he would best be able to help schools, children, and families by developing a practice where he could use his experience to review cases involving schools, education, and the supervision of children and provide expert opinions. Further, he has obtained a law degree with a specialty in education law and has consultation to plaintiff and defendant attorneys around the country and Canada more than 800 times on cases involving wrongful death, sexual harassment, negligent supervision, Title IX, and Section 1983 matters. Dr. Dragan has testified around the country over 125 times. You can learn more about his practice here: http://education-expert.com.

Below, you’ll find my questions and Dr. Dragan’s responses, related to the college cheating scandal.

Nick: It seems some of the allegations in the college racketeering conspiracy involve bribing entrance exam administrators. Are there procedures for qualifying entrance exam administrators?

Dr. Dragan: There are no procedures for qualifying entrance exam administrators that would guard against the bribery charges. Unfortunately, even if there were procedures or license for such administrators this type of scam can still occur. When parents, especially privileged parents, want something for their child they usually find a way – and it can involve paying a gatekeeper to a college. It takes two dishonest individuals to engage in this conspiracy and, unfortunately, the honest parents and kids lose out.

Nick: Many of us have long heard the stories of someone posing as a student for the entrance exams. I always took it as “lore.” What policies and procedures are in place to prevent test-taking fraud?

Dr. Dragan: Test-taking fraud is controlled on site by monitoring identification including pictures on license, school identification, passports, etc. Even this method can be circumvented. But careful screening can help deter fraud. Off-site or computer initiated test taking presents unique problems.

Nick: Admittedly, it is early in the publicly available information, but what policy and procedure changes would you suggest to limit test-taking fraud in the future?

Dr. Dragan: I am not an expert in electronic fraud but I imagine that for those off-site test-taking experiences software design might be helpful.

Nick: Do you expect universities to take action against coaches and other school officials who allegedly accepted bribes?

Dr. Dragan: Yes, I do expect universities to take action against coaches and other school officials who are convicted of taking bribes. They should immediately be placed on leave – no work at the university – pending investigation. If there are criminal charges made and they are convicted they should be fired. Of course, employment contracts and other elements will need to be taken into account.

Nick: Is there anything else you wish to add. Comments, concerns, or otherwise…

Dr. Dragan: The education system, and the honest pursuit of education, is a privilege enjoyed by those who are eligible to “get into” the club. When parents circumvent honest endeavors of their children they are teaching their children, by example, how to be cheaters and how to lie to get what they want. This is shameful – and especially for those who fit high-profile status.


 

It should be noted that USC has already taken action against at least one coach and one school administrator for their alleged wrongful conduct. They fired two employees yesterday, according to the LA Times, while Dr. Dragan and I were communicating about this article. As the story develops, Dr. Dragan and I may return with a Part 2 on this topic!

 

Criminal JusticeCriminal LawForensic Psychiatry

Date Rape Drugs: Expert Comments on Unreliable Tests, Harming Prosecutions

A few weeks back, BuzzFeedNews wrote an in-depth article on the unreliability of date rape drug testing and how the tests harm investigations and often prevent prosecutions.

Reading the article angered me. I became frustrated over the additional harm done to victims from a lack of national testing standards. My gut feeling was our lack of national or even statewide standards and capabilities, results in victims being re-victimized after a rape.

As with many other blog posts, it forced me to dig a little deeper and communicate with experts to see who was available to comment on this topic, to continue the discussion. Hopefully, by continuing the discussion we might shine more light on the problem and bring it one step closer to a solution.

Without reliable testing standards, how do we preserve evidence for a future prosecution? Even worse, how do we even know if the victim was drugged? If we do not set a standard, how will medical facilities know which drugs to test for during a DFSA screening? Furthermore, we need a comprehensive testing protocol to determine the standard of care when drug-assisted rape is suspected.

Normally, I provide my “two-cents” on a subject before diving into the Q&A with an expert witness. With this subject, I want to hear directly from the medical professional, and I’m sure the readers feel the same.

Forensic Psychiatry Expert Witness Sanjay Adhia

Dr. Sanjay Adhia is triple-board-certified in psychiatry, brain injury medicine and forensic psychiatry. In addition to forensic/expert witness practice, Dr. Adhia is medical director of PACE Mental Health Clinic in the Houston area.  His forensic practice focuses on the psychiatric impact of personal injury, abuse, competency, violence, and complicating mental illness. Dr. Adhia evaluates and treats psychiatric injury and disability in victims and alleged abusers. Dr. Adhia is among one of the few forensic psychiatrists who is board-certified in Brain Injury Medicine. To learn more about his forensic psychiatry practice, visit: https://www.forensicpsychiatrynow.com/.

Nick: You have written about the issue of date rape drugs in this article  (also found directly on Dr. Adhia’s website: https://www.forensicpsychiatrynow.com/date-rape-drugs) in the past. What are some drugs commonly used in date rape assaults?

Dr. Adhia: Common characteristics of many drugs used in Drug Facilitated Sexual Assaults (DFSAs) include the ability to incapacitate a victim and to cause anterograde amnesia (inability to recall the assault).

There are quite a few drugs commonly used in DFSAs. The most common and readily available drug is alcohol. Sedatives that are used by perpetrators include Ambien. Benzodiazepines, a class of medications used to treat anxiety, are often employed in DFSAs.  They include Valium, Xanax, Ativan and Rohypnol (“Roofies”). Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a recreational drug with stimulating and sedating properties, is preferred by some perpetrators as it leaves the body quite rapidly. Ketamine (an anesthetic), Ecstasy (MDMA) and Soma (muscle relaxant) are additional examples of date rape drugs.

Nick: According to the BuzzFeedNews article, there are no national standards with regards to drug testing for date rape drugs. Do you have any recommendations for testing standards?

Dr. Adhia: I would recommend national standards. These standards could establish certification requirements for labs, lab staff and physicians who interpret the tests. For, example there are physicians who are certified to be an MRO (Medical Review Officer). They have expertise in interpreting drug tests.  The standards should include time-specific criteria for the various samples to be tested (blood, urine or hair). There should be a list of drugs that are required to be tested. Recently, I was involved in a case where the sample was destroyed after a year and GHB was not included in the testing battery. The standards should establish reliable methodology and concentration cut-offs for each tested substance. Ideally, there should not be any false-negatives or false-positives. Confounding factors could be considered in national standards.

Nick: In the past, I only ever heard it referred to as “date rape.” I understand it is now called Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA). Is there a national committee working to create standards for addressing DFSA cases?

Dr. Adhia:

A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, 2nd Edition was published by the Department of Justice Office of Violence Against Woman. It includes a section on drug and alcohol testing. (Refer to https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ovw/241903.pdf page 107).

Internationally, the United Nations has published “Guidelines for the forensic analysis of drugs facilitating sexual assault and other criminal acts.”

Nick: In your forensic psychiatry practice, how do you go about treating those suffering the aftermath of DFSA? For example, victims often cannot remember the attack, so what approaches are used? With what issues are victims likely to suffer after DFSA (i.e. depression, anxiety)?

Dr. Adhia: Drug-induced amnesia is not protective of PTSD and other disorders that can occur after a DFSA. For example, some of Bill Cosby’s DFSA victims reported symptoms indicative of PTSD in their victim-impact statements. Many of his victims had life-long effects such as a reduced ability to trust men and form relationships, panic attacks, and nightmares. In DFSAs, there can be a sense of shame and self-blame. A victim could be at increased risk for substance abuse or suicide.

The treatment for PTSD and other co-occurring disorders such as depression or anxiety disorders include medications and counselling. Two medications often used in PTSD include anti-depressants and a blood pressure medication that helps reduce the nightmares. Occasionally, mood-stabilizers and anti-psychotic medications are used to target associated symptoms such as irritability.  Counselling includes individual and group psychotherapy.

Nick: Any other comments on concerns you wish to share about this crime…

Dr. Adhia: With increasing awareness, the hope is victims act promptly to preserve evidence for prosecution. Many of these drugs will exit the body in under three days or less. A victim can save his or her urine in a clean and closed container and refrigerate it promptly. A rape kit should be performed as soon as possible. The National Sexual Assault Hotline can be called at 800.656.HOPE to find a medical center for a sexual assault forensic exam with urine and blood testing for drugs.

Prompt treatment of the medical and psychiatric sequelae of DFSA is critical. A victim should be monitored and treated for any drug toxicity. There have been unfortunate cases of overdose such as with Tammy Homolka who choked on her vomit after being drugged with halothane in the course of a DFSA committed by her sister, Karla Homolka and Paul Bernardo. Emergency birth control and STD treatment is often indicated after sexual assaults.

Victims should be evaluated and treated for psychiatric disorders soon after the assault. The hotline number above can be contacted to provide referrals.


 

Again, the National Sexual Assault Hotline phone number is: 800.656.HOPE. The hotline is maintained by RAINN (Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network). They also have live chat options available on their home page: https://www.rainn.org.