Category: Deposition

DepositionExpert Witness

Increasing Use of Remote Depositions – Expert Witness Best Practices

Remote depositions appear to be growing. As an expert witness, what should you do to improve your presentation and performance to maintain credibility and authority?

As more professionals work from home, remote depositions will continue to rise in popularity and usage. But, the extent of the rise is hard to tell since there is a lack of any hard data on the subject. One of our contributors, Isaiah Leslie, has provided some anecdotal information on the subject. We know court hearings and administrative meetings are taking place remotely. In an article from the Fort Worth Star Telegram, we learn about what may be the first remote jury trial in the U.S., which occurred in Texas. With an increase in remote hearings, depositions, and even jury trials, we wanted to give you some information about presentation and performance as an expert witness in remote deposition.

There have been an abundance of articles discussing remote depositions, but none of them appear to cover best practices for the deponent and, relevant to Experts.com members, the expert witness. Instead, the articles discuss the law permitting remote depositions; the local rules to be followed; agreements between lawyers about sharing of discoverable information; procedures for exhibits; whether the deposition is going to be taken by video conference or the deposition is being video recorded; and operation of several of the remote video platforms. The information is important for all parties to a litigation, but none of it helpful to the deponent.

To this end, I had to do some digging and contact a bunch of folks for their insights. We received some great feedback from court reporters, court videographers, and live video marketing professionals. Below is a summary of suggested best practices for expert witnesses before and during a remote deposition, focusing on presentation, apparel, lighting, audio, video, and overall performance.

Increase in Remote Depositions:

One of our contributors, Isaiah Leslie, a co-founder and partner at Regal Court Reporting, provided us with the best data on the increase in remote depositions from his company’s personal experience. In March of 2020, only 2.6% of their depositions were remote. By April, all of their depositions were remote, increasing by 550%. Although remote depositions have not outnumbered their previous in-person deposition numbers, as Isaiah noted, the adoption is still significant.

The increase in remote depositions makes sense, given the shelter-in-place orders throughout the country. Many of those who adopted remote deposition by necessity have discovered its advantages. By no means am I suggesting remote depositions would replace in-person depositions entirely. However, as legal professionals become more comfortable with videoconferencing technology, it’s reasonable to anticipate continued growth in remote depositions even after COVID-19.

Legal system participants are likely to realize, if they have not already, the value of videoconferencing. It is convenient for all involved, as there is no need to travel to the deposition location. Reduced travel should lower litigation costs as parties will no longer have to pay for travel time and costs (for lawyers and expert witnesses). Most importantly at the present time, it provides the added benefit of being socially distanced.

With this expectation remote depositions will become more prevalent, even post-COVID-19, here are the suggestions from our contributors, to help you as a deponent, give your best presentation and performance.

Court Reporter Suggestions:

Isaiah Leslie and I have become friendly on Twitter, which for those who know me, is where I’ve made a significant number of professional relationships. Isaiah brought his partner and wife, Stephanie Leslie, into the conversation so we can get some outstanding suggestions direct from a court reporter who regularly participates in depositions.

As with other past blogs, I provided a variety of questions and Mrs. Leslie provided some outstanding responses (some edited for brevity and clarity).

Nick Rishwain: Have you experienced an increase in remote/virtual depositions during COVID-19?

Stephanie Leslie: We have certainly seen more remote depositions than usual, but unfortunately most law firms are still not jumping on board fully quite yet for a variety of reasons. One being their lack of comfort with the technology aspect of things. Once they try it, they typically schedule more after that. It’s just making the plunge.

NR: Based on your experience doing in-person video depositions and remote depositions, have you identified any best practices for deponent performance?

SL: The most crucial thing with remote depositions is abiding by the admonition to not talk over others. As a working reporter myself, I can attest to the fact that speakers talking over each other is always a nuisance and makes my job exponentially harder, but in remote depositions it is absolutely critical because remote platforms, such as Zoom, act similarly to a speakerphone, and it can only choose one voice to allow through the system, so if there is simultaneous speaking, I can usually hear no one. And then, to add insult to injury, if other speakers are talking, I cannot successfully interrupt and remind everyone to speak one at a time because no one can hear me either. I have found that even though it feels very tedious to go slowly and methodically, it actually makes the deposition go more quickly and smoothly.

NR: My customers are concerned with coming across as credible, knowledgeable, professional and authoritative in their field. What do you recommend for best remote deposition performance?

SL: I have taken several expert depositions recently, all remotely, and I don’t think the virtual aspect of the deposition makes much of a difference. I felt like it was any other expert deposition. It was very clear to me which experts were knowledgeable and confident about the subjects upon which they were opining, and others were obviously not as much. I think a great CV and clear opinions backed by evidence still come through clearly to all observers.

NR: Any suggestions on apparel, lighting, audio/video setup?

SL: I have seen some sharp solid-colored virtual backgrounds created with an expert firm’s logo placed in the top corner just to the side of the witness, and it is very professional looking and memorable while not detracting from the substance of the proceeding. Apparel — I suggest still making sure you’re completely professional on top. What’s on bottom is up to you! I use an inexpensive cube light to help illuminate my face, but if the room is well lit (not too much back light), I don’t think it’s particularly necessary. Audio is the most important thing. Please test your connection and audio quality beforehand!

NR: Any further suggestions I may not have asked?

SL: As usual (but even more important with remote), if you are able to provide any spellings or technical words to the stenographer before the deposition, that is always appreciated. We usually come into the case with little to no context on the facts and your background and role, so anything you can assist with along the way is invaluable!

Legal Videographer Suggestions:

Isaiah, continued to provide me with excellent access to his team and we got some outstanding feedback from Sean Malone, of Malone Video, who works primarily with Regal Court Reporting.

The same questions provided to Stephanie Leslie were also sent to Mr. Malone. His different experiences from a videographer perspective are equally beneficial to the expert witness.

Sean answered the questions in a slightly different format, which have been edited for brevity and clarity.

Nick Rishwain: Have you experienced an increase in remote/virtual depositions during COVID-19?

Sean Malone: Definitely. Though overall some attorneys are still hesitant to go remote, others have been willing to test, and even embrace remote depositions right now, due to the quarantine. As a legal videographer, before the quarantine I had done exactly zero remote depositions. Since the quarantine, I have done at least 2 to 3 per week, on various platforms, and all for clients that were mainly accustomed to in-person depositions before COVID-19.

For the following, questions 2-4, Sean answered the questions in aggregate.  So, you don’t have to scroll up to find those questions again, I’ve added them below:

NR: Based on your experience doing in-person video depositions and remote depositions, have you identified any best practices for deponent performance?

NR: My customers are concerned with coming across as credible, knowledgeable and an authority in their field. What do you recommend for best remote deposition performance?

NR: Any suggestions on apparel, lighting, audio/video setup?

SM: As a legal videographer, the things that matter in an in-person deposition are the same things that matter for a remote deposition. For example, is the deponent well lit? Are they centered in frame? Can they be clearly seen and heard? I’d recommend a similar approach for everyone involved in a remote deposition: identify your best in-person deposition practices and translate those to the medium of video conference.

Just like in real life, the witnesses I’ve observed that come off well are the witnesses who:

  • Are professionally dressed.
  • Are well mannered/aware that they are the focus of the deposition and the video record.
  • Listen to and directly answer attorney questions.

One note on that last one: Just like in real life, we all know that deponents should let the taking attorney finish their question before starting to answer, and also pause a little so that the opposing attorney can get in their objections… But this is especially important during a remote deposition, because of that notorious split-second delay present in all video conferencing platforms.

To present yourself well and make the videographer love you, you can:

  • Make sure you are well lit, and not heavily backlit.
  • Make sure whatever is in the background behind you is relatively neutral and not distracting (in other words, maybe take that Backstreet Boys poster down before logging on).
  • Make sure the area around you is tidy and free from clutter.
  • Make sure the camera built into your computer is as close to your eye-level as possible. If the camera is too low, like on your lap for instance, everyone will view you (and the video record will capture you) from an unflattering, upward angle. Eye-level or at least face-level is the best idea for a flattering shot of you.
  • Ideal framing is you in the center of the frame, with your torso and head visible in frame, with a little bit of headroom on top (headroom is the small space between the top of your head and the top of the frame). See picture:

sean-malone-legal-videographer-frame-example

  • Make sure you are joining the video conference from a reliable device that has a decent camera and microphone built in.
  • Make sure that device is charged!

Some additional tips on your Internet connection. So that your testimony can be captured optimally by both the court reporter, and the videographer, make sure your Internet connection is as strong as possible. Office internet is more robust than home internet, but if you are at home, you can try:

  • Connecting your device via Ethernet cable rather than WiFi.
  • If you cannot connect via Ethernet cable, choose the spot in your home with the strongest WiFi signal.
  • Ask other members of your household to refrain from moderate or heavy Internet use that day (e.g. have them avoid streaming TV, playing online games, etc.)

NR: Any further suggestions I may not have asked?

SM: I always like to say that everyone in a deposition has a job to do. Therefore, I try to help others do their jobs well, by doing my job well. I think that approach can be helpful no matter what your job is!

As we feel this is going to be a growing experience for witnesses and expert witnesses, we wanted to create a blog post that is truly helpful to your presentation and performance. So, we brought in one more voice to help you nail that remote deposition!

Live Video Marketing Professional Suggestions:

As some of my readers know, I’ve been doing live video since about 2015. However, I do it as a hobby. Our next contributor does it professionally and has written a book on the subject. I’m just lucky enough to know her and call her a friend. Jennifer Quinn, is a leading consultant on Internet live-streaming. I reached out to her and asked her for her input regarding presentation and performance.

Here are the suggestions provided direct from Jenny. In this instance, I asked questions more generally and Jenny gave me us some outstanding suggestions, all of which should be considered for remote depositions.

NR: I’m looking for suggested best practices. How would you want an expert witness to be prepared for remote deposition? What best practices do you suggest?

Jennifer Quinn: The fastest way to build trust with someone is to show up the way they expect you to show up. Traditionally, as an expert witness, you would arrive, dressed professionally, sit upright, and be fully prepared for the deposition.

The question most expert witnesses have today is how to transfer that same level of authority, and trust one would have face to face or in-person to a video format.

There are a few quick and easy ways to convey instant authority and credibility when preparing for a video deposition.

  1. Pay attention to your background – be sure it conveys professionalism.
  2. Dress the same way you would dress if you were attending court in person.
  3. Make virtual eye contact with the video viewers by looking directly into the lens of the camera. Yes, this will feel awkward; however, it is possibly the most crucial skill you can master if you want to instantly build trust in this new era of video. Looking directly into the lens of the camera simulates eye contact and conveys authenticity more powerfully than anything else you can do when recording video.

In my book, I reference the need to pay attention to L.A.V.S.: Lighting, Audio, Video, Stability.

Lighting:

  • Daylight – sit in front of the window with the light shining in on your face.
  • Ring light – clips on to your phone.
  • Box lighting – home office studio setup.
  • Turn off the overhead lighting in the room.

Audio:

  • Earbuds with built-in mic.
  • External microphone.
  • USB/Studio mic.

Video:

  • Cell phone camera.
  • Built-in webcam.
  • USB webcam.
  • Keep the lens camera at eye level.
  • Look into the lens.

Stability:

  • Prop phone up – at eye level (think books, boxes, etc.).
  • Tripod or mount.
  • Desktop/laptop – don’t bump desk or table.

There you have it. Four different individuals telling you how to up your remote deposition game as remote depositions have drastically increased in the last 90 days.

Throughout shelter-in-place, many lawyers and parties have experienced the benefits of remote depositions. It has proven both convenient and cost effective. We do not expect the trend in growth to wane any time soon. If anything, we could be witnessing a completely new shift in how the legal system communicates.

DepositionExpert WitnessTestimony

Expert Witnesses – Practical Guide to Smart Business Practices

Expert Witnesses have been burdened by issues that hinder their ability to both perform and receive compensation for their performance.  This post is a simple but practical guide to help Expert Witnesses overcome a few obstacles related to their work and help them become more efficient and effective .

Fee Collection. Perhaps the most problematic issue for Experts is collecting fees. There are many ways for this to become an issue. The attorney may fall behind in payments, may want to pay less if a settlement is smaller than anticipated, or may not want to pay at all if the case is lost.

  • Get a written agreement which includes all of the terms and conditions and any consequences for failing to comply. In an article for Expert Witnesses, appellate lawyer, Aaron R. Larson, writes, “Your agreement with the attorney should specify that you may decline to perform additional services if the attorney has not paid your fees for prior services. “ This will allow for more security once the attorney engages the Expert. More time can be focused on the issues of the case rather than how and when the Expert will be paid.

“Hired Gun” Syndrome:  Disparaging remarks made by counsel as to the ethics of Experts Witnesses has always been a bane to the practice. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary defines a hired gun as, “an expert hired to do a specific and often ethically dubious job.” Credibility should be the number one priority. Here are two ways to protect your professional integrity:

  • Prior to engagement, tell the attorney that your opinions will be based on the facts of the case and your testimony will not be compromised by the attorney’s desired outcome of the case.
  • Perception is everything. If an Expert only testifies on behalf of either plaintiff or defense, than the Expert risks the perception of being a hired gun.

Depositions and Trial Testimony

  • Legal Issues – Have an understanding of the legal issues in the case. Regardless of your expertise, the legal issues may vary from case to case. For example, a Biomechanics Expert may have to opine in a case regarding an injury. This injury may be negligent or intentional. In such a case, it is important to differentiate between the two legal causes of action.
  • Do Not Interrupt – In order to have an accurate record, allow each person to finish before you speak.
  • Silence Is Your Friend – Only answer the questions asked. Never offer more information than is required. If counsel asks a “yes” or “no” question, only answer with a “yes” or a “no.” Do not add fluff to fill the silence.
  • Think Before You Speak ­– Take time to form an answer before you begin speaking. It is better to pause and be comfortable in the silence than to give an unsupported answer. If you do not understand the question, ask for clarification.
  • “I Don’t Know” – If an Expert is caught off guard with new or hypothetical facts that have not yet been analyzed, it is better to answer, “I don’t know,” rather than state an unsubstantiated opinion that can damage the case.
  • Check Your Ego at the Door – Experts are most effective when they are likeable! An Expert is more likely to be persuasive if they are well-liked.
  • Simplicity is Key ­– Make complex explanations understandable.